I Am Joseph Your Brother, Roncalli and the Hatred and Love of Jews
Professor Gaffney's address, "I Am Joseph Your Brother, Roncalli and the Hatred and Love of Jews," traced the long and generally shameful history of the Catholic Church's shunning of the Jewish faith. Simmering quietly almost from the time of Christ's death, it turned drastically worse in the fourth century, Gaffney noted, when the Popes of that time began to refer synagogues as "hovels" and "homes of insanity." Legal protections for Jews began to erode, especially in Europe. The Crusades launched during the Middle Ages, aimed at Muslim and Jew alike, in some ways foreshadowed the rise of the Nazi party centuries later, Gaffney commented.
Gaffney, Edward M. Jr., "I Am Joseph Your Brother, Roncalli and the Hatred and Love of Jews" (2004). Saint Pope John XXIII Lecture Series. 10.