Within the contemporary debate over medical ethics, without question the most striking weakness found is the lack of a basic yardstick against which either the "rightness" or "wrongness" of a physician's actions may be measured. No general agreement is to be found among physicians or ethicists acknowledging what ethical determinant the physician should or should not follow in a particular case. Yet, despite this conflict of uncertainties, a framework for principled decisionmaking does exist and can be found within the rubric of medical ethics.
George P. Smith, II, Complexities in Biomedical Decision-Making, 1 PERSP. L. & PUB. INT. 37 (1998).