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Over the years numerous articles have surveyed the indicia of independence and the place of independent agencies within a separation of powers framework. In this article, we review the structure and internal operations of independent agencies, note several similarities and differences among them, and address various recurring issues affecting them. We further consider the future of this regulatory form as we enter the new millennium. We focus on agencies-whether multi-member or not-where at least one individual is appointed by the President to a full-time, fixed-term position with the advice and consent of the Senate and has protection against summary removal by some form of "for cause" restriction on the President's authority.



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