The exercise of individual conscience under military compulsion is an issue revived by the My Lai courts martial. Natural law jurists saw a place for individual conscience, but the positivist school's dominance changed that. The Nuremberg doctrine denied the defense of superior orders, and now the debate is raging again.
Raymond B. Marcin, Individual Conscience Under Military Compulsion, 57 A.B.A. J. 1222 (1971).